Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2011.
       
     
Outside Bomassa, Republic of Congo, 2000.
       
     
Loango National Park, Gabon, 2003.
       
     
Samburu National Reserve, Kenya, 2007.
       
     
Zakouma National Park, Sarh, Moyen-Chari, Chad, 2006.
       
     
Galana River, Tsavo West National Park, Kenya, 2010.
       
     
Ivindo National Park, Gabon, 2003.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.

After appearing cautious amongst the Vumbi pride, resident male Hildur inexplicably began to run, and continued to run for five miles.  He was running to his other pride where we found him consorting with an estrus female the next day.  
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Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.

For our two-year lion project, we centered our work around the females of the Vumbi (“dust” in Swahili) pride, raising cubs in the difficult feast and famine of the Serengeti plains.  We also focused on this black-maned male, one of two resident coalition males.  The researchers called him C-Boy.  Image made with invisible infrared light. 
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Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.

During the rains this unnamed kopje (rock outcropping) has a waterhole that brings prey for the Vumbi pride. On this afternoon they rested closely together after all five females attacked Hildur, the second male in the resident coalition. Why? Maybe simply because there was not enough food to share.  
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Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2011.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2011.

We habituated the Vumbi pride to a remote-controlled toy camera car and were able to make very intimate ground-level images. This gave a dignified insight into lion social behavior. The fragile car would morph into a rugged robot tank as the assignment continued. 
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Outside Bomassa, Republic of Congo, 2000.
       
     
Outside Bomassa, Republic of Congo, 2000.

Realizing it was safe, young males recolonized the forest around this basecamp in Bomassa, Congo-Brazzaville. 
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Loango National Park, Gabon, 2003.
       
     
Loango National Park, Gabon, 2003.

Some of my favorite images were taken by the elephants themselves, as they broke the invisible beams of carefully placed camera traps.
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Samburu National Reserve, Kenya, 2007.
       
     
Samburu National Reserve, Kenya, 2007.

Victoria of the Royals, the most powerful elephant family in Samburu National Reserve.
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Zakouma National Park, Sarh, Moyen-Chari, Chad, 2006.
       
     
Zakouma National Park, Sarh, Moyen-Chari, Chad, 2006.

One night when a herd of eight hundred elephants left the park to look for fresh food, twenty were gunned down in an ambush.  Zakouma National Park, Sarh, Moyen-Chari, Chad, 2006.
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Galana River, Tsavo West National Park, Kenya, 2010.
       
     
Galana River, Tsavo West National Park, Kenya, 2010.

A wild family crosses the Galana River that divides Tsavo National Park. One of the largest parks in Africa, Tsavo is a critical last stand habitat for wild elephants to walk the earth.
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Ivindo National Park, Gabon, 2003.
       
     
Ivindo National Park, Gabon, 2003.

Sniffing the air for danger, a female forest elephant follows her charges into Langoue Bai, a mineral-rich watering hole and wildlife magnet. Discovered by Fay, this site is now the centerpiece of Gabon's new Ivindo National Park.
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Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.

Resident coalition male C-Boy guarded this zebra killed by the Vumbi pride for a whole day.  He only began to eat at dusk.  Later that night he was seen dragging the carcass toward a defensible rock outcropping with thirteen hungry lions and twenty hyena trailing him.
Image made with robot tank.
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Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.

Hildur, a resident coalition male, rests with a full belly from a zebra kill appropriated from the Vumbi pride.  At nightfall, he relinquished the carcass, allowing the pride to eat. 
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Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.
       
     
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, 2012.

The Vumbi pride prepares for the evening hunt. Serengeti plains lions, because they have no cover, hunt by the darkness of night. They’re very tuned in to both when the sun rises and sets and when the moon rises and sets.
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